2. 1. Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each. In Hindi. Learn computer networking basics fundamentals notes Sir can I do unload ur book PDF bt how pls tell me. Reply. Amit Saxena. कंप्यूटर नेटवर्किंग हिंदी मे सीखे Computer hardware and networking notes in hindi pdf कंप्यूटर हार्डवेयर क्या होता.

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all part of, computer networks let us share information and resources. In business , In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts. An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks. 13 of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. Networking के क्षेत्र में routers का प्रयोग दो networks को connect करने के लिए किया जाता है। एक router एक network से packat लेकर.

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Most Popular Computer Hardware Networking Terms

They are listed below, 1 Simplex: Data transferring which takes place only in one direction is called Simplex. In Simplex mode, the data gets transferred either from sender to receiver or from receiver to sender.

Alternatively, the data is sent and received. Eg: Browsing through the internet, a user sends the request to the server and later the server processes the request and sends back the web page. Eg: Two lane road where traffic flows in both the directions, communication through telephone etc. Q 33 Name the different types of network topologies and brief its advantages?

Ans Network Topology is nothing but the physical or logical way in which the devices like nodes, links, and computers of a network are arranged. Physical Topology means the actual place where the elements of a network are located.

Logical Topology deals with the flow of data over the networks. A Link is used to connect more than two devices of a network.

And more than two links located nearby forms a topology. As the devices are connected to a single cable, it is also termed as Linear Bus Topology. The advantage of bus topology is that it can be installed easily. And the disadvantage is that if the backbone cable breaks then the whole network will be down. In this topology, the devices are not linked to each other.

If a device needs to communicate with the other, then it has to send the signal or data to the central hub. And then the hub sends the same data to the destination device.

The advantage of the star topology is that if a link breaks then only that particular link is affected. The whole network remains undisturbed. The main disadvantage of the star topology is that all the devices of the network are dependent on a single point hub.

If the central hub gets failed, then the whole network gets down. Data or Signal in ring topology flow only in a single direction from one device to another and reaches the destination node. The advantage of ring topology is that it can be installed easily.

Adding or deleting devices to the network is also easy. The main disadvantage of ring topology is the data flows only in one direction. And a break at a node in the network can affect the whole network.

Mesh Topology uses Routing and Flooding techniques for data transmission. The advantage of mesh topology is if one link breaks then it does not affect the whole network. And the disadvantage is, huge cabling is required and it is expensive.

Q 35 Define Piggybacking? Ans In data transmission if the sender sends any data frame to the receiver then the receiver should send the acknowledgment to the sender.

The receiver will temporarily delay waits for the network layer to send the next data packet the acknowledgment and hooks it to the next outgoing data frame, this process is called as Piggybacking Q 36 In how many ways the data is represented and what are they? Audio: It is nothing but the continuous sound which is different from text and numbers.

Video: Continuous visual images or a combination of images. Images: Every image is divided into pixels. And the pixels are represented using bits. Pixels may vary in size based on the image resolution. Numbers: These are converted into binary numbers and are represented using bits. Text: Text is also represented as bits. Q 38 How a Switch is different from a Hub? Ans Below are the differences between a Switch and a Hub, Below given snapshot clearly, explains the difference between a switch and a hub, Q 39 Define Round Trip Time?

Ans The time taken for a signal to reach the destination and travel back to the sender with the acknowledgment is termed as Round Trip time RTT. Q 40 Define Brouter? Ans Brouter or Bridge Router is a device which acts as both bridge and a router.

As a bridge, it forwards data between the networks. And as a router, it routes the data to specified systems within a network. It is assigned by the Internet Service Provider as a permanent address. Dynamic IP is the temporary IP address assigned by the network to a computing device. Dynamic IP is automatically assigned by the server to the network device. Q 42 How VPN is used in the corporate world?

कंप्यूटर हार्डवेयर नेटवर्किंग हिंदी सीखे Computer hardware and networking notes

Corporate companies, educational institutions, government offices etc use this VPN. Q 43 What is the difference between Firewall and Antivirus? Ans Firewall and Antivirus are two different security applications used in networking. A firewall acts as a gatekeeper which prevents unauthorized users to access the private networks as intranets.


A firewall examines each message and blocks the same which are unsecured. Antivirus is a software program that protects a computer from any malicious software, any virus, spyware, adware etc. Note: A Firewall cannot protect the system from virus, spyware, adware etc. Q 44 Explain Beaconing? Ans If a network self-repair its problem then it is termed as Beaconing.

If a device in the network is facing any problem, then it notifies the other devices that they are not receiving any signal.

Likewise, the problem gets repaired within the network. Q 45 Why the standard of an OSI model is termed as Ans OSI model was started in the month of February in So it is standardized as When a new device is added to the network, it broadcasts a message stating that it is new to the network.

Then the message is transmitted to all the devices of the network. Q 47 How can a network be certified as an effective network? What are the factors affecting them?

The factors affecting the performance of a network are hardware, software, transmission medium types and the number of users using the network.

Reliability: Reliability is nothing but measuring the probability of failures occurred in a network and the time taken by it to recover from it. The factors affecting the same are the frequency of failure and recovery time from failure. Security: Protecting the data from viruses and unauthorized users.

Learn computer networking basics fundamentals notes

The factors affecting the security are viruses and users who do not have permission to access the network. Q 48 Explain DNS?

DNS acts as a translator between domain names and IP address.

As humans remember names, the computer understands only numbers. Generally, we assign names to websites and computers like gmail. When we type such names the DNS translates it into numbers and execute our requests. Translating the names into numbers or IP address is named as a Forward lookup.

Translating the IP address to names is named as a Reverse lookup. This is used to design or develop standards that are used for networking.

Q 50 What is the use of encryption and decryption? Ans Encryption is the process of converting the transmission data into another form that is not read by any other device other than the intended receiver. Decryption is the process of converting back the encrypted data to its normal form. An algorithm called cipher is used in this conversion process.DNS is used by everyone using the Internet to resolve commonly known domain names i.


By using address translation instead of routing, address sharing provides an inherent security benefit. Amit Saxena July 20, Utility Computing Cloud Computing Utility computing refers to the ability to charge the offered services, and charge customers for exact usage Cloud Computing also works like utility computing, you pay only for what you use but Cloud Computing might be cheaper, as such, Cloud based app can be up and running in days or weeks.

This is one of the easiest to setup and maintain. It is usually a computer that runs the gateway software and provides translation services. Q 57 How can you recover the data from a system which is infected with Virus? Esme dono issue ho skte hai hardware or software bhi..