robotics by rk fyadocoodenes.tk - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or read online for free. Robotics Control, Sensing, Vision, And Intelligence. Uploaded by. snri0da9. Robotics and Control by RK Mittal Robotics Book By R K Mittal and I J Nagrath Robotics and Control Book Description: The book provides a compressive. Coordinate frames, mapping, and transforms. Symbolic modeling of robots-direct kinematic model. The inverse kinematics. Manipulator differential motion and.
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Features The book provides a compressive overview of the fundamental skills underlying the mechanism and control of manipulators. Detailed chapter on. Robotics and Control.. [I J Nagrath; Mittal, R.K.] -- An extremely well-written book for a first course in Robotics. The book really scores with a detailed treatment of. Free Download pdf E-book of Robotics and control By R.K Mittal and-ij-nagrath- Mediafire fyadocoodenes.tkad on fyadocoodenes.tk
Euler's Equation 6. Control of Mnnigulators 8. Q[1[[Q1 Sgnggm 9. Intelligent robot: Variably programmed operations make the execution of a multiplicity of tasks possible. Because of all this, there is still confusion in distinguishing a robot from automation and in describing functions of a robot To distinguish between a robot and automation. For a machine to be called a robot.
The robot must interpret the stimuli either passively or through active sensing to bring about the changes required in its environment. The decision-making. The growth of robots can be grouped into robot generations. These generations are overlapping and include futuristic projections. It is predicted that these will continue to be in use for a long time.
These robots exhibit path-control capabilities. Thistecltnological breakthrough came around and is yet not mature. The growth in computers led to high-speed processing of infonnation and, thus.
The technology is still in infancy and has to go a long way. Prediction about its features is difficult, if not impossible. It may be a true android or an 7. This might provide for fifth and higher generation robots. A pictorial visualization of these overlapping generations of robots is given in Fig. The mechanical structure of a robot is like the skeleton in the human body.
The robot anatomy is, therefore, the study of skeleton of robot. The mechanical structure of a manipulator that consists of rigid bodies links connected by means of articulations joints , is segmented into an arm that ensures mobility and reachability.
Most manipulators are mounted on a base fastened to the floor or on the mobile platform of an autonomous guided vehicle AGV. The arrangement of base, arm, wrist, and end-effector is shown in Fig. A rigid link that can be connected. Figure 1.
robotics by rk mittal.pdf
Two links are connected together by a joint. By putting a pin through holes B and C of links I and 2, an open kinematic chain is formed as shown in Fig. The joint fomied is called a pin joint also known as a revolute or rotary joint.
Relative rotary motion between the links is possible and the two links are said to 8. In Fig. These are 0 Revolute R and 0 Prismatic P. The relative motion of the adjoining links of a joint is either rotary or linear depending on the type of joint. Revolute joint: It is sketched in Fig. The two links are jointed by a pin pivot about the axis of which the links can rotate with respect to each other. Prismatic joint: The two links are so jointed that these can slide linearly move with respect to each other.
Screw and nut slow linear motion of the nut , rack and pinon are ways to implement prismatic joints. Other types of possible joints used are: At a joint, links are connected such that they can be made to move relative to each other by the actuators. A rotary joint allows a pure rotation of one link 9.
The kinematic chain formed by joining two links is extended by connecting more links. To form a manipulator. Such a manipulator is an open kinematic chain.
The end- effector is connected to the free end of the last link, as illustrated in Fig. Closed kinematic chains are used in special purpose manipulators. The kinematic chain of the manipulator is characterized by the degrees of freedom it has. These parameters are discussed in next sections. These six independent movements pictured in Fig. R2, R3.
Note from the above that six independent variables are required to specify the location position and orientation of an object in 3-D space. Nevertheless, in a 2-D space a plane. For instance. Consider an open kinematic chain of two links with revolute joints atA and B or C , as shown in Fig.
Here, the first link is connected to the ground by a Introduction to Robotics Ground Fig. Link 2 can rotate about joint 2 J2 with respect to link 1, contributing another independent variable and so another DOF. Thus, by induction, conclude that an open kinematic chain with one end connected to the ground by a joint and the farther end of the last link free, has as many degrees of freedom as the number of joints in the chain.
It is assumed that each joint has only one DOF. The DOF is also equal to the number of links in the open kinematic chain. For example, in Fig. The variable defining the motion of a link at a joint is called a joint-link variable.
Thus, for the two- link. Such a manipulator is called a spatial manipulator. It has three joints for positioning and three for orienting the end-effector.
A manipulator with less than 6-DOF has constrained motion in 3-D space. A planar manipulator can only sweep a 2-D space or a plane and can have any number of degrees of freedom. For example. Spatial manipulators with more than 6-DOF have surplus joints and are known as redundant manipulators. The extra DOF may enhance the performance by adding to its dexterity. Dexterity implies that the manipulator can reach a subspace.
The DOF of a manipulator are distributed into subassemblies of arm and wrist. The arm is used for positioning the end-effector in space and, hence.
The remaining 3-DOF are provided in the wrist. The type and arrangement of joints in the arm and wrist can vary considerably. These are discussed in the next section. The purpose of the arm is to position the wrist in the 3-D space and the arm has following characteristic requirements.
I The design is mechanically robust because the arm has to bear not only the load of workpiece but also has to carry the wrist and the end-effector.
According to joint movements and arrangement of links. These are characterized by the distribution of three arm joints among prismatic and rotary joints. It is constructed by three perpendicular slides, giving only linear motions along the three principal axes. There is an upper and lower limit for movement of each link.
The workspace represents the portion of space around the base of the manipulator that can be accessed by the arm endpoint. The physical space that can be swept by a manipulator with wrist and end-effector may be more or less than the arm endpoint workspace. The volume of the space swept is called work volume; the surface of the workspace describes the work envelope.
Two types of constructions are possible for Cartesian arm: The latter one has the appearance of a gantry-type crane and is shown in Fig. Despite the fact that Cartesian arm gives high precision and is easy to program. The difference from the Cartesian one is that one of the prismatic joint is replaced with a revolute joint. The rotary joint may either have the column rotating or a block revolving around a stationary vertical cylindrical column.
The vertical column carries a slide that can be moved up or down along the column. The horizontal link is attached to the slide such that it can move linearly, in or out, with respect to the column. The arm endpoint is, thus. To be precise. It is suitable to access narrow horizontal cavities and, hence, is useful for machine-loading operations. It consists of a telescopic link prismatic joint that can be raised or lowered about a horizontal revolute joint.
These two links are mounted on a rotating base. This arrangement of joints. The construction is more complex.
Robotics and Control.
Polar arms are mainly employed for industrial applications such as machining, spray painting and so on. These two links are mounted on a vertical rotary table corresponding to the human waist joint.
The arm endpoint can reach the base point and below the base, as shown in Fig. This anthropomorphic structure is the most dexterous one, because all the joints are revolute, and the positioning accuracy varies with arm endpoint location in the workspace. The range of industrial applications of this arm is wide.
This advantage is very important Introduction to Robotics at high speeds and high precision. Workspace Fig. The wrist subassembly movements enable the manipulator to orient the end-effector to perfonn the task properly, for example, the gripper an end-effector must be oriented at an appropriate angle to pick and grasp a workpiece.
For arbitrary orientation in 3-D space, the wrist must possess at least 3-DOF to give three rotations about the three principal axes. Fewer than 3-DOF may be used in a wrist, depending on requirements. The wrist has to be compact and it must not, diminish the performance of the arm. The wrist requires only rotary joints because its sole purpose is to orient the tend-effector.
A 3-DOF wrist pennitting rotation about three perpendicular axes provides for roll motion in a plane perpendicular to the end of the arm , pitch motion in vertical plane passing through the arm , and yaw motion in a horizontal plane that also passes through the arm motions.
This type of wrist is called roll-pitch-yaw or RPY wrist and is illustrated in Fig. A wrist with the highest dexterity is one where three rotary joint axes intersect at a point.
This complicates the mechanical design. Different end-effectors can be attached to the end of the wrist according to the task to be executed. These can be grouped into two major categories: Grippers 2. Tools Grippers are end-effectors to grasp or hold the workpiece during the work cycle.
The applications include material handling, machine loading-unloading. Grippers employ mechanical grasping or other altemative ways such as magnetic, vacuum. The proper shape and size of the gripper and the method of holding are determined by the object to be grasped and the task to be pcrfonned.
Some typical mechanical grippers are shown in Fig. For many tasks to be performed by the manipulator. For example, a cutting tool, a drill, a welding torch, a spray Fig. The tool is usually directly attached to the end of the wrist. Sometimes, a gripper may be used to hold the tool instead of the workpiece. Tool changer devices can also be attached to the wrist end for multi-tool operations in a work cycle. The human arm and its capabilities make the human race class apart from other animals.
The design of the human arm structure is a unique marvel and is still a challenge to replicate. Certain characteristics of the human arm are a far cry for today's manipulators.
It is, therefore. The three motions to orient the hand. The second part of the human arm consists of upper arm and forearm with shoulder and elbow joints. The 2-DOF shoulder joint provides an approximately hemispherical sweep to the elbow joint.
Another important feature of the human arm is the ratio of the length of the upper arm to that of the forearm. Any ratio other than this results in perfonnance impairment.
A mechanical structure identical to the human arm, with 2-DOF shoulder joint. This, coupled with the joint actuation and control mechanism and tactile sensing provided by the skin makes the human hand a marvel.
This requires them to have much higher mobility, manipulatability. The mechanical structure of a robot, which consists of rigid cantilever beams connected by hinged joints forming spatial mechanism, is inherently poor in stiffness, accuracy, and load carrying capacity. The enors accumulate because joints are in a serial sequence. These difficulties are overcome by advanced design and control techniques.
The serial-spatial linkage geometry of a manipulator is described by complex nonlinear transcendental equations. The position and motion of each joint is affected by the position and motion of all other joints.
Further, each joint has to be powered independently, rendering modeling, analysis, and design to be quite an involved issue. The weight and inertial load of each link is carried by the previous link. The links undergo rotary motion about the joints, making centrifugal and Coriolis effects significant. All these make the dynamic behaviour of the robot manipulator complex, highly coupled, and nonlinear. The kinematic and dynamic complexities create unique control problems that make control of a robot a very challenging task and effective control system design a critical issue.
The robot control problem has added a new dimension in control research. The environment in which robots are used poses numerous other complexities as compared to conventional machine tools. The work environment of the robot is often poorly structured, uncertain, and requires effective means to identify locations, workpieces and tools, and obstacles. The robot is also required to interact and coordinate with peripheral devices.
Robots being autonomous systems, require to perform additional tasks of planning and generating their own control commands.
The detailed procedure, control strategy, and algorithm must be taught in advance and coded in an appropriate form so that the robot can interpret these and execute these accurately. Effective means to store the data, commands, and manage memory are also needed. Thus, programming and command generation become critical issues in Introduction to Robotics Al robotics. To monitor it's own motions and to adapt to disturbances and unpredictable environments, robot requires interfacing with intemal and extemal sensors.
To utilize the sensory infonnation, effective sensor-based algorithms and advanced control systems are required, in addition to a thorough understanding of the task. In the analysis of spatial mechanisms manipulators. Mathematical description of the position and orientation of links in space and manipulation of these is. To describe position and orientation of a body in space. The position and orientation of this frame with respect to some reference coordinate frame.
Frames are attached to joints, links, end-effector, and workpieces in the environment of the robot to mathematically describe them, as illustrated in Fig. This requires mapping or transfonning or changing the description of its attributes from one frame to another. Conventions and methodologies for description of position and orientation.
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You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Robotics and Control. Mittal, R. Tata McGraw Hill India English View all editions and formats Summary: An extremely well-written book for a first course in Robotics. The book really scores with a detailed treatment of the Maths underlying the subject and brings out the physical interpretations of the mathematical equations.
Salient Features: Detailed cha. Physical Description xv, p. Subjects Digital control systems. Notes Includes index. View online Borrow download Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?
These 2 locations in All: Monash University Library.
Open to the public ; University of Wollongong Library. Open to the public. This single location in New South Wales: This single location in Victoria: None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please waitView online Borrow download Freely available Show 0 more links These robots are conceptualized in a different manner than industrial robots.
The two links are so jointed that these can slide linearly move with respect to each other. Thistecltnological breakthrough came around and is yet not mature. A rigid link that can be connected.
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