An experience of the fragility of conventional images of masculinity is something many modern men share. Psychoanalyst Guy Corneau traces this experience to an even deeper feeling men have of their fathers' silence or absence—sometimes literal, but especially emotional and. new PDF Absent Fathers, Lost Sons: The Search for Masculine Identity ( C. G. Jung Foundation Books Series) Full Online, new PDF why customers keep coming fyadocoodenes.tk you need a absent fathers lost sons the search for masculine identity, you can download them in pdf format from our website.
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The concept of teacher' is a reading of father offered as simple explanation for the key role played by the Rastafarian ideologues such as the early patriarchs' of the Movement Howell, Hinds, Hibbert and Dunkley. There is evidence in the designation of Teacher' throughout the Movement's history.
Bob Marley, who emerged some forty years after the Movement's formation, was to take on the title Tuff Gong' in continuation of this tradition of what one could call oral resonance', and he too could be viewed as a teacher' - perhaps one of the twentieth century's most outstanding ones - teaching the illiterate millions the liberation message. What was the lesson taught by the Elders?
Planno, who has been connected to the University since its inception in , describes himself as a Karmanic thinker, and then proceeded to explain, by example, that he sat in council with Bob Marley years ago.
Immediately the parallel with the image of Christ and the context of his experience in effecting the revolution from which Christianity was produced is conjured up in the imagination. Bob the son, manifesting his work, in honor of his spiritual father. It is this ability and even audacity possessed by the Rastafarian which was taught by the elders. It is the re-membering of the African Nation, the re- establishment of the familial network, that view of the Most Holy Family in Africa, our Father afore, Abba, who teaches all who may come, how to live.
These two basic indicators are important cornerstones of the Movement's philosophy or attitude to life, and further these ideas are seen as pillars around which the work of the Movement's teachers is built. Key teachers are identified through their works, and especially viewed through their students' works. The teachers are seen as repairers of the breach caused by "head decay shun" - the onomatopoetic rendition of education', which is viewed as having a head-decaying' effect on people who passed through this system.
The teacher is the creator of the revolution of culture, as a basic ingredient in the methodology of mental liberation. Through them ones' are transformed back to themselves', based on the praxis of Reasoning' or informal gatherings for social and intellectual exercising, a means of viewing ones' situation and examining reality and strategizing a way forward. There is the commonly held view within the Movement that each one teach one'. Planno's residence in Trench Town nicknamed the "Fifth Street University", courted all who came, scholars and researchers from around the world.
This environment provided rich critical thought for iconoclastic work and knowledge building, in the opinion of many notable researchers. Planno in this instance is not regarded as a mere teacher but indeed, as an institution himself, generating, disseminating and archiving knowledge and creating a space for the business of liberation thinking. Often their sophisticated solutions are ignored because of their obvious simplicity.
In this regard, even after one hundred years of Pan African activism, there is still the absence of a constructive engagement or the development of an acceptable' paradigm and vision of leadership within Diasporan African discourses.
Absent fathers, Garvey's Children and the Back to Africa Movement comes as an interpretation, in a bid to review the idea', perhaps even the inner logic', of one of the African Diaspora's most successful revolutionary practices.
It speaks to an African reality which has been perverted and underrated within the context of the Caribbean Carry Beyond , as the male backbone of these societies has been configured and reconfigured in order to meet with the challenges of struggle and survival in the Diaspora. The Father, absent and significantly disfigured by the experience of colonialism is here refocused to determine how it is that he has survived in this staging' between the forces of progressive resistance and those of systemic domination and destruction.
The idea of absent father especially when viewed in its greatest concentration of Jamaica's population - Kingston's inner-city ghettoes, challenges the imagination to conjure up ideas of Port Royal, the reputed "wickedest city on earth", which makes the work of the Movement become most significant.
What does this say of the role and place of the movement of Rastafarian within that locus from which they affected the world? When viewed in the context of the work of Ras Tafari, "Absent Father s Garvey's Scattered Children and the Back to Africa Movement" comes in the context of a socio-historical analysis drawing on the methods of Cultural Studies to historicize a Caribbean people's thought and praxis as it relates to theorizing on Progressive Resistance'.
Bob Marley was one who was able to congeal the story of Capture in Africa, which he describes as being stolen from Africa, sold in the Americas, fighting on Arrival for survival. Whilst the educated elites placed their faith in western scholarship to find legitimacy, the intellectuals among the folk searched Africa. The assertion of an African identity and a scholarly critique of colonialism were for the first time given Imperial support through the unique African leadership provided by Haile Selassie.
This idea and its emergent ontological pathways have made one of it leading thinkers and teachers Mortimo Planno view the Rasta man, as "the Earth Most Strangest Man", and then he goes further to call for a new faculty of interpretation to interpret this society. While Planno calls for new interpretation, he acknowledges that the Rastafarians - drawing on ancient traditions based on the faith held by members of the Movement, constitutes the important New Faculty of Interpretation'.
The genesis of this New Faculty of Interpretation can be identified as pre-dating World War II but especially active during and after the war. This "Earth Most Strangest Man" had to find himself.
The simple logic of this new way was founded on the very idea of the Christian teachers who taught of the word becoming Flesh. In Jamaica the words of Emperor Haile Selassie became a source of inspiration - by the s a distinct national Movement was noticeable, attracting academic, legal and colonial scrutiny.
10.1.1.1030.5399.pdf - Absent Fathers Effects on Abandoned...
By the late s this Movement had fine-tuned its approach into one whose philosophy was transmitted through music that captured the ear- waves and spoke to the youth worldwide, especially to those who saw themselves as oppressed. In the University College of the West Indies undertook to survey the Rastafarian Movement in Kingston to help to interpret the Movement's ideas to the public and government.
This was a period of confrontations and hostile encounters between the supporters of the Movement and especially the representatives of the law. The Movement was a symbol of new enlightenment, a neo-resistance against systemic colonial repression geared at keeping docile and compliant the "loyal" colonial subjects.
This was the perception of leading members of the Movement - leaders such as Sam Brown, Mortimo Planno, and Bongo Watto, who sent a letter to the Principal Arthur Lewis, inviting the University's help in the articulation the Movement's case.
The brethren concluded that someone like Arthur Lewis, who had worked in Ghana, was experienced enough to give the type of intellectual treatment the Movement's claim required.
The wider society had failed to see the inner logic of the Rastafarian claims.
Lewis pulled together an eclectic multidisciplinary team to survey and report findings, which were then communicated to the Government for urgent action. This was followed by two tours of Africa, based on the university's recommendations to the Government of Jamaica, to explore the logistics of Repatriation by way of a fact finding and technical mission to five African countries.
Why is it that the Return of people back to their homeland so infected and invigorated people that a new Ethiopianism' emerged as a social Movement? This question is crucial for a true understanding of what the Rastafari movement represents to Jamaica. Chevannes posits that storytelling is what we do at the University while also saying that Rastafari is the Memory of the Jamaican people.
Chevannes, a; b These two prisms if viewed in light of the work of Chevannes' as well as other scholars including Nettleford et al, Campbell, Rodney, and Yawney , place the Rastafarian movement at the centre of the project of construction of Diasporan History, particularly as it concerns African Redemption. The stories of the Rastafarian movement hold cultural and historical value. The problematic of dysfunctional families and the marginalization of the male father figure is a lingering schema in Jamaican society, and perhaps one of the greatest legacies of European Colonialisms.
Chevannes ascribes the problem to our own actions when he reminds us that "what we sow is what we reap". He outlines the predicament of our society as follows: "One of the charges leveled against Jamaican men is their sexual irresponsibility. Not only do they not stick to one partner, but they also run from commitment and from paternity. That is why, in this country, it is the women who father their children. This absent father' feature has deep socio-historical roots. The Rastafari movement has supplied the engagement of this problematic faced by the African Diasporan Family in a critical and transformative way.
It is here argued that the Rastafarians are an exception to this general perception of the Jamaican male see Levy, , pp. They provide a Revolutionary cosmology in the way that the Movement represents a fundamental position of a return of the father, through his physical presence and involvement in the social sphere; as well as a return to the African homeland.
This is the essence of the embrace of the Ethiopian Godhead, Haile Selassie I, as well as the claims to Repatriation, which the Movement makes. Additionally, in the construction of this cosmology the Rastafari Brethren have claimed the common Fatherhood of God and Brotherhood of Man, in the way in which Marcus Garvey described the African as worshiping God through the spectacles of Ethiopia.
But, perhaps most importantly, the Movement manifests the idea of the dispersed African as a modern expression of the captive children of Israel referred to by the Old Testament prophets who articulated visions of the release of the captive children in Babylon and their return to the life of righteousness. In the twentieth century the Rastafarians have applied the Bible's so- called rhetoric literally, demanding that the North "give up" and the "South to keep not back" as the liberators work to bring the "sons from far, and daughters for the ends of the earth".
This vision of a Return to the land of Our' father required the awakening of the hearts of the fathers, and to focus on what the Old Testament prophet Malachi referred to as the day of the Lord, to see how the Great Redeemer would infuse the people with his spirit.
Malachi bore witness to the great redemption stating, "And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.
In this tropical belt of the Western hemisphere, thinking on African Diasporicity, its foundation and logic is not immediately translatable into grassroots empowerment and activism by the intellectuals, Rodney's The Groundings with my Brothers being perhaps one of the few exceptions. When the historical development of the Rastafari Movement is examined, it provides useful insight into the evolution of a collective cultural vision of the phenomenon of Diasporicity, and puts forward a view of Redemption, and how it is that that this project can be achieved based on the history and culture of the scattered Africans.
And so Marcus Garvey's mobilization of the dispersed Africans' consciousness was but only one important starting point for work which is still in progress. The emergence of the Rastafari Movement marked a new direction to the ideas of Garvey as far as an immediate engagement of the system through its preaching of a mental disengagement' from the oppressive colonial administration and an embrace of the kind favor of the African Redeemer King.
This was the achievement of Howell at Pinnacle, his self-sufficient Rastafari encampment in the hills of St Catherine, where the foundation logic of the Movement's modus operandi and doctrine were established.
The Rastafari Movement's message of liberation quickly caught on, its converts felt empowered to reason and preach out his position in society. Never before had the ideas of a return to Africa held such a supreme place in popular folks' consciousness. The idea of a return to Africa was viewed by the Colonial administration as extremely subversive in potential.
The society sees itself operating as a dysfunctional system, with crime and violence as the normative behavior, inherited by the present generations. With the exception of Marcus Garvey's work, there is little evidence to suggest that Jamaican scholars understand the inner logic of the project of African Redemption. Marcus is often interpreted as a John the Baptist character. In the face of the colonial empire - he anchored his project in the US and embarked on the rebuilding of the Scattered African nation and spirit through the Universal Negro Improvement Agency.
Garvey asked crucial questions such as: How has man changed since creation?
Garvey's critique of the negro', the Black man in the Americas' provided a point of introspection for those questioning their position in the world. The early publication of his Philosophies and Opinions' provided a unique document that could be considered a liberation text for his growing web of awakened Africans. In the virtual absence of other early Jamaican scholarship, and the relative silence of the educated elite on the issue of the resettlement of the enslaved African, it is the so-called illiterate', or the organic intellectual' among the African Diasporan folk who have re-directed their angst toward charting a course to re-humanize' Marcus Garvey's children.
There is then no choice but to interrogate sources which are non-scribal to give an account of the experience of that large section of the Jamaican Caribbean population that is treated marginally in the academic literature and dismissed as composed of Afro-centric fanatics, escapists and lunatics by their societies. In this approach, what immediately becomes apparent is that the source of folk scholarship is the culture which it creates.
In the realms of thinking on liberation, the music has been one of the most vocal, succinct and sustainable discourses. It could be argued that Marcus Garvey was resurrected through the music of Rastafari, particularly the music of Burning Spear. This notion of the resurrection of Garvey leads us to the issue of the African Presence and the role of Rastafari, the Movement's members and ideas in providing thoughtful leadership' to the Jamaican People about the vision of Africa.
Planno once more provides us with some insight through which we may begin to discern the logic of the Movement's approach to Redemption. He reminds us that the memories of slavery live on in the blood even of the unborn children, and that the psychology of the society constructed in slavery, has few concerns for the harmony and balance in Creation.
Historically within the Jamaican Family, the fathers disappeared, since children belonged to owners of estates and were given these planters' surnames, and in essence a new history.
This absent father, this "retrograded man" is thus evolved through the interplay of culture, history, violence, and "polite violence" , creating a nature' among the Jamaican male which renders them officially marginal to childrearing responsibilities.
The men are also considered absent from society due to their invisibility in domestic and day to day issues. The male figure often attests to looking for work, a place to live, and food. Often he is a migrant from the country into the city in search of opportunity, often also opting to migrate to North America and Europe in search of a way of sustaining himself and his family.
Many are forced into illegal activity. The transience of male life produces further social complications, demonstrated by Planno's analogy of Miss Rainbow, a woman who loses all the men she encounters, while left with a brood of children for these absent men with a spectrum of surnames such as Brown, Green, Gray, Black etc.
In a society based on the overarching Christian' teachings under the colonial mind, such a woman and her family would face a continued struggle for survival. Society would also judge her as indecent based on her repeated misfortune with men. Rastafari reject Babylon, which means among other things, that they reject the brutal logic of gun culture, violence and death in favor of the image of a new man.
In this regard, the exponents of the Movement devised the first comprehensive system to arrest the problematic situation of the dispersed African family.
Treatment of Children with Absent Fathers
This came by way of the construction of a community with an inner logic based on returning the Father to that unit. This was achieved at the spiritual, domestic and community levels, founded on a synthesis of cultural knowledge. Nettleford notes that when the camps were visited as a part of the UWI research, the women were noticeably absent and the men were present with the children. It is in these camps, strewn from Rock Fort in eastern Kingston to Trench Town in western Kingston, that the Rastafarian brethren and their families developed a system of critical thinking for survival.
The music industry was a gentler but perhaps, also a more potent way for men to fight the battle for mental liberation, and it was a fight that children could participate in without fear of danger. Bob Marley was able to bring his children into the training camp at 56 Hope Road, and they have emerged with a capacity to carry on their father's work. Since the Movement's emergence its development has attempted to claim and assert a demand for Marcus' undisturbed or gestational independence'.
The leadership ideas espoused by Rastafari suggest to researchers that there are links between the traditional and current African Presence, combined with information learned from the experience of multiculturalism in the Caribbean.
These experiences, which extend from the earliest expressions of Ethiopianism to more recent Pan Africanism and beyond, took on a radical difference with the rising visibility of Ethiopia after the Coronation of Haile Selassie.
The most outstanding periods noticeable in the Movement's cultural identity are as follows: Pan Africanism, characterized by the teaching of Africa in the Garveyist Pan African mode. This allowed a positive picture of Africa to take root in the consciousness of the folk. Athlianism with the Holy Piby, as its new gospel emerges in this period. Modern Ethiopianism emerged in the period from with the ascension of Haile Selassie to the throne. This was intensified during the Italo-Ethiopian war which saw Africans globally coming together to defend Ethiopia and her ancient historical past.
In Jamaica and North America this translates into Ethiopianist Volunteerism and the action politics of engagement of the society. Jamaica experienced the growth of anti-colonial sentiments which saw riots replicated through the colonial world. There was also the promulgation of the new truth about Rastafari, and a new faith in his name The social welfare concerns which developed in the inner-city urban environment of the Movement's urban poverty resulted in the development of bases and common areas for meeting, the Ras Tafari Movement, Planno's Local 37' is identified within this label as well as with this period.
The growth of the organized activity seen through the Ethiopian World Federation is one of the chief organizational characteristics of this period. Common survival strategies dominate this period in a way which unified many in the urban areas in centers of Rastafari teaching. Music production, the visits of Haile Selassie to the west and Jamaica in particular are highlights of the period.
Ultimately by the s the idea of the Rastafarians had become popularized, launching Reggae music to the world through the creativity of its artistes as Ambassadors of Rastafari. For many outside Jamaica Rastafari was the symbol of Jamaica. The maturity of the Movement by the s comes with an understanding of the Universal Liberation and the evidence of continuous work especially facilitated by the extensive travel near and far by the reggae Messenger of Jah boldly traveling with the work to the ends of the earth.
Unfortunately, the extensive Experience of the Movement, its multi-tasked teaching approach, its history, philosophy, literature, politics, sociology - its Livity' or way of life - all of which have received some measure of scrutiny within the framework of those disciplines have yet to be placed together as a paradigm for integrated research.
Cultural Studies provides us with some an eclectic and essential tool with which to view this project. Cultural Studies, for which a multi-disciplinary approach to research is necessary, brings the inner logic of the Rastafari worldview together, allowing for clearer and more holistic interpretation of the texts. Viewing more, and viewing more sensitively, are part of the requirement for projects in Cultural Studies, and in this Caribbean space it could also be said to be the basis of the formation of returning to ourselves - this culture when viewed by its own creators and p ractitioners becomes part of a project of self articulation.
The ideational and philosophical high points of the Movement's history as a way of viewing how such an organism' of liberation emerges, grows and develops in the face of extreme struggle, persecution and oppression are of key concern. Such events as the Coronation of the Emperor of Ethiopia; the Italo- Ethiopia war; the Riots in Jamaica; the political activism leading to the 2nd world war and especially its peace settlement which set a new tone for international relations ; the Granting of adult suffrage in Jamaica and the Universal Declaration on Human Rights; His Majesty's movements towards the west in the decade of the s; the decades of the s and its high points for the Movement's leaders , these and other events reveal interesting patterns of a connected thread - a wave-like motion' of ideas and related events.
In particular we see how cultural practices emerged often out of expedience and how this in turn results in cross- fertilization. These events are "glocal" in the sense that they are a combination of the local and global operating in tandem. They show patterns of spiritual bonds, divine threads, which are culturally similar in purpose and direction.
It is to this extent that Sir Arthur Lewis' pronouncement that "we are all Rastas" Nettleford, makes sense, since those inhabiting this space are connected to everyone else through the crucible of a common European colonialism which Nettleford invokes as the melody of Europe with the rhythm of Africa Nettleford, Rastafari has been acknowledged by reputable authorities as a vocal African Diasporan voice that engages in warring with words for liberation of Apartheid Southern Africa, against nuclear war, crime and violence.
But the Rastafarians more than others have actively engaged the oppressive world system from the margins, and agree to hold and represent through wordsound' the feelings, memories, pain, homelessness, poverty, and estrangement because of this Faith'.
Music as a Medium Music is a significant medium and its text crucial evidence that can be used to identify ideas related to the treatment of Back to Africa and the dissemination of the Movement's ideas. His sentiment of peace and love as well as his advocacy for human rights and liberties - for the advancement of a new civilizing mission' the new hope that the Movement offers is unparalleled in acclaim in our modern epoch.
Aside from the selection of "Exodus" as album of the century, his works such as "Confrontation", "Uprising", and "Survival" contain Rastafarian interpretation, philosophy and thought. Many of these works are imbued with cultish and liturgical significance by Rastafarians. Marley's historical anthems "Redemption Song" and "Africa Unite" are unambiguous messages of African experience and hope. He envisioned the return of Africans to the native land. More than any other, Marley's work, like that of Marcus Garvey, resounded with the truth of the conditions faced by Africans as well as other oppressed peoples all over the world.
Marley's brethren note that Bob Marley had no idea that there were concrete jungles' all over the world or that his themes were speaking for humanity. However, it is clear that in Jamaica there was a large contingent responsible for and dependent on Bob Marley for their survival. To this extent Bob Marley's 56 Hope Road residence marked the outward growth and expansion of his original home base Trench Town which had in the early years provided an open learning atmosphere - at 5th Street.
Marley's Hope Road re-location was testimony to the Movement's journey - he was the people's mouth piece and breadwinner and they were in turn his source of insight and understanding. The use of songs as succinct treatment and treatise of the philosophy of liberation by the Movement started early.
Reggae is an outgrowth of that practice of reasoning and other urban community entertainment innovation. These form a commonly available lyrical text made even more accessible through media as well as the informal trading of records abroad among dispersed Jamaicans. In more recent years radio stations such as Irie FM' and Roots FM' have become important mouthpieces for the ideas emerging from folk culture, particularly the culture of Reggae music.
When music is viewed against the historical backdrop of the Dance Hall as a Jamaican institution for cultural training with an increasing amplification, Rastafari music particularly reggae can be seen as a major contributing source for the liberation discourse. This new anchor can be identified as developing from a Carry beyond Caribbean Faculty of Interpreters constructing a praxis of cultural studies from an African, Ethiopian-centered point of view.
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Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Jung Foundation Books Series 2. Because, he says, this generation marks a critical phase in the loss of the masculine initiation rituals that in the past ensured a boy's passage into manhood.. Jung Foundation Books Series , click button download in the last page 5. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.
Visibility Others can see my Clipboard.The society sees itself operating as a dysfunctional system, with crime and violence as the normative behavior, inherited by the present generations.
This is related to a couple of points above, but the author appears to have no psychological background, except for his "graduation" from the Association of Jungian Psychoanalysts of Quebec. Jalani A. Planno provides a picturesque visual schema with which to understand the reality of the system under which Babylon holds its captives by using the game of chess. This is often, especially in older literature referred to as the Back to Africa Movement.
The ideational and philosophical high points of the Movement's history as a way of viewing how such an organism' of liberation emerges, grows and develops in the face of extreme struggle, persecution and oppression are of key concern.